Create and define math elements

If you need a math element that doesn’t appear on the Equations pod, you can create a custom element—for example, a new operator such as operator.pngoperator.png. However, FrameMaker cannot evaluate custom math elements mathematically.

To display a built-in element on the pod differently in your document, you can redefine the element. For example, you can redefine the asin(inverse sine) function so it appears as sin1. You can redefine the appearance of a built-in element, but you can’t change its type.

You can also import math element definitions from another document.

Custom math element definitions are stored on one or more reference pages whose name begins with FrameMath. Each definition is a text line in an unanchored graphic frame whose name is the element name.

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A. Graphic frame B. Text line

Math element types

A math element type indicates how the element behaves in relation to other elements around it. For example, a plus sign (+) has the type infix, which means that it has two operands, one to the left and one to the right.

You can define custom math elements of the following types.

Type

Example

Number of operands

Atom

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None

Delimiter

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One

Function

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One, to the right of the element

Infix

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Two, to the left and the right of the element

Large

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Up to three, above, below, and to the right of the element

Limit

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Up to two, below and to the right of the element

Prefix

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One, to the left of the element

Postfix

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One, to the right of the element

Vertical list

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Two, one above the other (The text line that defines a custom vertical list is used as a separator between list items.)

You cannot define custom math elements of the following types.

Type

Example

Derivative

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Diacritical mark

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Horizontal list

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Matrix

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Root

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Script

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Substitution

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Vertical division bar

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Define a custom math element or change a built-in math element definition

1)Choose View > Reference Pages and display a FrameMath reference page.

If the document doesn’t contain a FrameMath reference page, display a reference page and then choose Special > Add Reference Page. Name the new page FrameMath1. Capitalize the letters F and M as shown.

2)Use the Graphic Frame tool to draw an unanchored graphic frame on the page.

3)In the Frame Name dialog box, enter a name for the math element. If you are redefining a built-in element, enter that element name.

4)Use the Text Line tool to add a text line in the graphic frame.

5)Create the math element in the text line using the following guidelines:

You can type any characters in the text line, and you can change the character format. You can also move the characters by using micropositioning shortcuts.

For all math elements except delimiters, the text line represents just the mathematical symbol, not the operands. When you later insert the element in an equation, FrameMaker places the operands in the appropriate places, based on the type of math element. For example, a large element, such as a summation or an integral sign, has up to three operands—one above, one below, and one to the right of the symbol.

A custom delimiter can contain only one operand, even though some built-in delimiters contain two or three. To indicate the location of the operand, insert a space in the text line. If you do not insert a space in the text line, FrameMaker places the operand between two copies of the delimiter.

A. Characters in delimiter.    B.Space indicates the operand.

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FrameMaker uses the first text line in the frame for the custom math element. Make sure that only one text line exists in the frame.

6)Select the graphic frame.

7)On the Equations pod, choose Add Definition To Catalog from the Equations pop-up menu.

8)If you’re defining a custom math element, choose an element type from the pop-up menu, and click Add.

Find the name of a math element

1)Place the insertion point in an equation.

2)On the Equations pod, choose Insert Math Element from the Equations pop-up menu.

3)Turn off Show Custom Only, and then scroll through the element names to find the one you want.

4)Click Cancel.

Change or delete a custom math element definition

1)Display the FrameMath reference page that contains the math element by doing one of the following:

If the custom math element appears in an equation, select the element, and choose Update Definition from the Equations pop-up menu on the Equations pod. Then click Go To Frame.

If you haven’t inserted the custom math element into an equation, choose View > Refer­ence Pages. Then display the FrameMath reference page you want.

2)Do one of the following:

Edit the text line that defines the math element. When you display a body page again, FrameMaker uses the modified definition, and shrinkwraps the equations again.

Delete the graphic frame. If the element appears in an equation, FrameMaker displays the element name, surrounded by question marks, instead of the element.

Position math elements in an equation

FrameMaker positions math elements according to their mathematical meaning in an equation. Sometimes you want to microposition elements—reposition them so they’re closer to or farther from other elements in the equation.

Before and after micropositioning

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You can also control the amount of white space on each side of an element.

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A. Default spacing B. Space added to the left and right C. Space removed from the left and right

1)On the Positioning page of the Equations pod, do one of the following:

To position a selected expression, click a Micropositioning arrow. Click as many times as necessary. (Each click moves an expression one pixel on the screen.) Zoom in for greater precision.

Micropositioning arrows

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To remove micropositioning, click the button at the center of the Microposition area MicrPosit.png.

To inspect the position offsets and adjust them numerically, click Position Settings. The exact offsets appear in the Microposition Offset area of the Math Element Position Settings dialog box. To adjust the position, enter values in the Microposition Offset area and click Set.

To adjust white space, click a plus sign (+) to add white space or a minus sign (–) to remove it. Click as many times as necessary. Each click adds or subtracts one pixel of space. Zoom in for greater precision.

note:   To change the spacing around a math element of type infix, prefix, postfix, or delimiter, adjust the space around the adjacent math elements instead. For example, to add space on either side of the plus sign in the expression a+b, selecta. Add space to the right. Then selectb. Add space to the left.

To adjust spacing values, click Position Settings. The exact spacing appears in the Spacing area of the Math Element Position Settings dialog box. To adjust the spacing values, enter values in the Spacing area, and click Set. To restore the default spacing values, click the button at the center of the Spacing area Spaciing.png.

Adjust the spacing values for a math element wherever it appears

You can update some math element definitions—infix, prefix, postfix, large, scripts, and the division bar—with new spacing. When you do, FrameMaker adjusts the spacing around the element wher­ever it appears in the document and rewraps the equations.

You can also change the spread—the space between characters—uniformly in all small, medium, and large equations.

1)After you adjust the spacing around the element in an equation, select the element.

2)On the Equations pod, choose Update Definition from the Equations pop-up menu.

3)Do one of the following:

To update the spacing for the element throughout the document, click Update.

To reset the spacing to the default, click Get Default.


September 30, 2016

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