One key to understanding how to improve application performance
is to understand how the Flash Platform runtime executes code. The
runtime operates in a loop with certain actions occurring each “frame.”
A frame in this case is simply a block of time determined by the
frame rate specified for the application. The amount of time allotted
to each frame directly corresponds to the frame rate. For example,
if you specify a frame rate of 30 frames per second, the runtime attempts
to make each frame last one-thirtieth of a second.
You specify the initial frame rate for your application at authoring
time. You can set the frame rate using settings in Adobe® Flash® Builder™ or Flash Professional. You can also specify
the initial frame rate in code. Set the frame rate in an ActionScript-only
application by applying the
to your root document class. In MXML, set the
in the Application or WindowedApplication tag.
Each frame loop consists of two phases, divided into three parts:
event, and rendering.
The first phase includes two parts (events and the
both of which potentially result in your code being called. In the
first part of the first phase, runtime events arrive and are dispatched.
These events can represent completion or progress of asynchronous
operations, such as a response from loading data over a network.
They also include events from user input. As events are dispatched,
the runtime executes your code in listeners you’ve registered. If no
events occur, the runtime waits to complete this execution phase
without performing any action. The runtime never speeds up the frame
rate due to lack of activity. If events occur during other parts
of the execution cycle, the runtime queues up those events and dispatches
them in the next frame.
The second part of the first phase is the
This event is distinct from the others because it is always dispatched
once per frame.
Once all the events are dispatched, the rendering phase of the
frame loop begins. At that point the runtime calculates the state
of all visible elements on the screen and draws them to the screen.
Then the process repeats itself, like a runner going around a racetrack.
For events that include an
rendering can be forced to occur immediately instead of waiting
for the rendering phase. However, avoid using
it frequently leads to performance problems.
It's easiest to imagine that the two phases in the frame loop
take equal amounts of time. In that case, during half of each frame
loop event handlers and application code are running, and during
the other half, rendering occurs. However, the reality is often
different. Sometimes application code takes more than half the available
time in the frame, stretching its time allotment, and reducing the allotment
available for rendering. In other cases, especially with complex
visual content such as filters and blend modes, the rendering requires
more than half the frame time. Because the actual time taken by
the phases is flexible, the frame loop is commonly known as the
If the combined operations of the frame loop (code execution
and rendering) take too long, the runtime isn’t able to maintain
the frame rate. The frame expands, taking longer than its allotted
time, so there is a delay before the next frame is triggered. For
example, if a frame loop takes longer than one-thirtieth of a second,
the runtime is not able to update the screen at 30 frames per second. When
the frame rate slows, the experience degrades. At best animation
becomes choppy. In worse cases, the application freezes and the
window goes blank.
For more details about the Flash Platform runtime code execution
and rendering model, see the following resources: