uses the Java Cryptography Architecture (JCA) to access private
keys and certificates for signing AIR applications. The signing
options identify the keystore and the private key and certificate
within that keystore.
The keystore must include both the private key and the associated
certificate chain. If the signing certificate chains to a trusted
certificate on a computer, then the contents of the common name
field of the certificate is displayed as the publisher name on the
AIR installation dialog.
AIR signing options syntax
The signing options use the following
syntax (on a single command line):
-alias The alias of a key in the keystore.
Specifying an alias is not necessary when a keystore only contains
a single certificate. If no alias is specified, ADT uses the first
key in the keystore.
Not all keystore management applications
allow an alias to be assigned to certificates. When using the Windows
system keystore, for example, use the distinguished name of the
certificate as the alias. You can use the Java Keytool utility to
list the available certificates so that you can determine the alias.
For example, running the command:
keytool -list -storetype Windows-MY
output like the following for a certificate:
Certificate fingerprint (MD5): 73:D5:21:E9:8A:28:0A:AB:FD:1D:11:EA:BB:A7:55:88
reference this certificate on the ADT command line, set the alias
Mac OS X, the alias of a certificate in the Keychain is the name
displayed in the Keychain Access application.
type of keystore, determined by the keystore implementation. The
default keystore implementation included with most installations
of Java supports the JKS and PKCS12 types.
Java 5.0 includes support for the PKCS11 type,
for accessing keystores on hardware tokens, and Keychain type,
for accessing the Mac OS X keychain. Java 6.0 includes support for
the MSCAPI type (on Windows). If other JCA providers
have been installed and configured, additional keystore types might
be available. If no keystore type is specified, the default type
for the default JCA provider is used.
Minimum Java version
Java keystore file (.keystore)
PKCS12 file (.p12 or .pfx)
Mac OS X Keychain
Windows-MY or Windows-ROOT
-keystore The path to the keystore
file for file-based store types.
-storepass The password
required to access the keystore. If not specified, ADT prompts for
-keypass The password required to access
the private key that is used to sign the AIR application. If not
specified, ADT prompts for the password.
Note: If you enter a
password as part of the ADT command, the password characters are
saved in the command-line history. Therefore, using the -keypass
or -storepass options is not recommended when the security of the
certificate is important. Also note that when you omit the password
options, the characters you type at the password prompts are not
displayed (for the same security reasons). Simply type the password
and press the Enter key.
-providerName The JCA provider
for the specified keystore type. If not specified, then ADT uses
the default provider for that type of keystore.
the URL of an RFC3161-compliant timestamp server
to time-stamp the digital signature. If no URL is specified, a default
time-stamp server provided by Geotrust is used. When the signature
of an AIR application is time-stamped, the application can still
be installed after the signing certificate expires, because the
timestamp verifies that the certificate was valid at the time of
If ADT cannot connect to the time-stamp server,
then signing is canceled and no package is produced. Specify -tsa none to
disable time-stamping. However, an AIR application packaged without
a timestamp ceases to be installable after the signing certificate
Note: Many of the signing options are
equivalent to the same option of the Java Keytool utility. You can
use the Keytool utility to examine and manage keystores on Windows.
The Apple® security utility can also be used for this purpose on
Mac OS X.
-provisioning-profile The Apple iOS provisioning
file. (Required for packaging iOS applications, only.)
Signing option examples
Signing with a .p12 file:
-storetype pkcs12 -keystore cert.p12
with the default Java keystore:
-alias AIRcert -storetype jks
with a specific Java keystore:
-alias AIRcert -storetype jks -keystore certStore.keystore
with the Mac OS X keychain:
-alias AIRcert -storetype KeychainStore -providerName Apple
with the Windows system keystore:
-alias cn=AIRCert -storeype Windows-MY
with a hardware token (refer to the token manufacturer’s instructions
on configuring Java to use the token and for the correct providerName value):
-alias AIRCert -storetype pkcs11 -providerName tokenProviderName
without embedding a timestamp:
-storetype pkcs12 -keystore cert.p12 -tsa none